Bovine enzootic hematuria in the state of tocantins and use of ultrasonography as a diagnostic method




Bovine enzootic hematuria (BEH) is a chronic disease caused by ingestion of Pteridium esculentum subsp. arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Thomson. This disease has great importance because it affects the animal wellbeing, causes economic losses, and hinders public health due to the toxic principle that is present in the milk of cows that ingest this plant. Early diagnosis assists in the decision making for disposal and replacement of animals in endemic regions. Despite ultrasonography is a useful tool for diagnosis of this disease, there is a lack of studies evaluating BEH in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, using ultrasound and epidemiological data and clinical signs; however, the histopathological examination is the method that provides the definitive diagnosis. The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of BEH in the state of Tocantins and evaluate the efficiency of bladder ultrasound examination for diagnosis and prognosis of BEH. Ten animals that presented intermittent hematuria and hypo-colored mucous membranes were subjected to clinical and complementary exams. The urine physical analysis presented light red color, high turbidity, and positive sedimentation. The ultrasonography showed a thick, irregular mass in the bladder wall, containing an echogenic liquid of high cellularity and pedunculated papillary lesions. Macro and microscopic analyses of the animals' bladders showed areas with vascular proliferation in the sub-mucous membranes associated with mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate and proliferation of the epithelium. Ultrasonography is an excellent option and, combined with clinical and laboratory exams of blood and urine, enables the diagnosis and prognosis of BEH.


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