Evaluation of the effects of acepromazine and xylazine on viability in an equine dermal cell line





Xylazine and acepromazine are drugs used exclusively in veterinary medicine. Xylazine is used as a sedative, analgesic, and tranquilizer while acepromazine is used as a sedative, pre-anesthetic, and anesthetic adjuvant. In vitro drug toxicity experimentation is essential to predict possible damage associated with treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the in vitro effects of acepromazine and xylazine on cell viability. Equine Dermis cells lines were used to examine different drug concentrations (0.02 mg/mL, 0.01 mg/mL, 0.005 mg/mL and 0.0025 mg/mL). An MTT assay was carried out to reveal cell viability. Both tested drugs reduced the viability of ED cells at 0.02 and 0.01 mg/mL. At 0.005 mg/mL, only acepromazine presented an effect. These results corroborate previous studies with xylazine. On the other hand, this is the first report about acepromazine and cell viability. Previous studies suggest that the mechanisms involved in reducing cell viability are apoptosis for xylazine and the activation of the autophagic pathway for acepromazine. Both mechanisms have been seen in other drugs of the same classes. These findings reveal that both acepromazine and xylazine cause concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in vitro. Future experiments could further elucidate the mechanisms by which this effect happens and thus circumvent the risk of potential tissue damage in vivo.


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