A COBERTURA NATURAL AO REDOR DO CAMPO REDUZ OS DANOS ÀS LAVOURAS E A ABUNDÂNCIA DE PRAGAS NAS TERRAS SECAS DO BRASIL

Palavras-chave: Serviços ecossistêmicos. Controle biológico. Complexidade de paisagem. Semiárido. Desenvolvimento sustentável.

Resumo

Um dos principais serviços ecossistêmicos prestados à agricultura em todo o mundo é a redução de pragas por inimigos naturais. No entanto, a composição da paisagem afeta várias dimensões do controle de pragas, e o habitat não agrícola ao redor dos campos agrícolas mostra respostas variáveis entre diferentes regiões do globo. Nesse trabalho, danos por herbivoria e abundância de pragas foram comparados entre duas paisagens com distintas cobertura e uso do solo (1 - conservada, com alta complexidade estrutural; e 2- degradada, com baixa complexidade). As observações de campo foram realizadas em plantios experimentais de goiabeiras, no Cariri Paraibano, uma das regiões mais secas da Caatinga. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que danos provocados por insetos da ordem Orthoptera, especialmente gafanhotos, bem como sua abundância, foram significativamente menores na paisagem com de alta complexidade estrutural. Portanto, esses resultados apoiam a hipótese que danos às culturas e a abundância de pragas são menores em paisagens com alta complexidade estrutural. Além disso, os resultados são muito importantes para as regiões semiáridas, pois fornecem informações sobre a relação entre a estrutura da paisagem e os danos à cultura em uma lacuna regional. Como as regiões semiáridas são ecossistemas criticamente ameaçados em todo o continente americano, paisagens agrícolas sustentáveis com ações de restauração florestal podem ajudar essas regiões a alcançar o desenvolvimento sustentável.

 

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Publicado
2021-12-22
Seção
Agronomia